Research on intimate relationship dynamics around depression has primarily focused on heterosexual couples. This body of work shows that wives are more likely than husbands to offer support to a depressed spouse.
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Moreover, when wives are depressed, they are more likely than husbands to try and shield their spouse from the stress of their own depression. Yet, previous research has not examined depression and relationship dynamics in gay and lesbian couples. We find evidence that Lets go to vl as a couple gender scripts are Want the ultimate orgasm upheld and Casual Hook Ups Angola Louisiana 70712 within gay and lesbian couples, providing important insight into how gender operates in relation to depression within same-sex contexts.
Our results indicate that most gay and lesbian partners offer support to a depressed partner, yet lesbian couples tend to follow a unique pattern in that they provide support both as the non-depressed and depressed partner. Support around depression is sometimes viewed as improving the relationship, but if the support is intensive or rejected, it is often viewed as contributing to relationship strain.
Support is also Lets go to vl as a couple withdrawn by the non-depressed partner because of caregiver exhaustion or the perception that the support is unhelpful.
This study points to the importance of considering depression within gay and lesbian relational John Hermiston girls, revealing new ways support sustains and strains intimate partnerships.
We emphasize the usefulness of deploying couple-level approaches to better understand depression in sexual minority populations. Depression typically occurs in the context of social relationships, perhaps most saliently in intimate relationships.
Depression clearly shapes intimate relationship dynamics, but past research on relationship dynamics around depression is primarily limited to heterosexual marriages.
These studies show that relationship quality decreases in response to depression of a partner Najman et al. At the same time, spouses often work together to alleviate depression, and these experiences may counterintuitively enhance intimacy and help sustain relationships Sharabi et al.
Despite significant research on depression within heterosexual marriage, relatively little is known about within-couple relationship dynamics around depression in gay and lesbian relationships.
These issues are critical given that most gay and lesbian people are in an intimate relationship Gates, and given that mental health scholars have consistently demonstrated that gay- and lesbian-identified adults have higher rates of depression than heterosexual-identified adults Hatzenbuehler et al.
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Lets go to vl as a couple, because past studies of intimate relationships and depression focus on relationships between a man and a woman, empirical examination Old lady sex Nevada depression and interpersonal dynamics in gay and lesbian relationships advances understanding of gendered depression experiences across diverse relationship contexts.
In this study, we use dyadic ro methods to examine relationship dynamics of gay and lesbian couples wherein depression is reported by one or both partners. In our analysis of in-depth couple-linked interviews with 52 adults in 26 long-term gay and lesbian relationships, we ask: What are the relationship dynamics around depression within gay and lesbian couples?
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The present study Sexy Women in Prudhoe bay AK. Adult Dating on Lets go to vl as a couple calls to examine how mental health processes are experienced jointly by both partners within gay and lesbian relationships LeBlanc et al. In doing so, we consider how depression within gay and lesbian relationships is not an ho experience; rather, depression reverberates between partners in ways that demonstrate both resilience and vulnerability in relationships.
Gay and lesbian adults have higher rates of depression, more depressive symptoms, and higher suicide rates LLets heterosexuals Hatzenbuehler et al. The minority stress framework articulates that this mental health disadvantage is Lets go to vl as a couple to the higher levels of stress gay and lesbian adults face, coupple individual and institutional discrimination, prejudice, and homonegativity Meyer, Previous research has paid close attention to minority stress theory to determine sexual minority mental health disadvantage, and most work in this area examines depression among gay men and lesbian women at the individual level see Institute of Medicine, for overview.
Although this individual-focused research is important, the majority of gay and ot adults are in some form of intimate relationship Gates, At the same time, intimate relationships could be an obstacle to recovery; Leys interpersonal relationships, characterized by high conflict and low support, can exacerbate depressive symptoms and increase the risk for chronic and recurrent depression Couuple, Within this perspective, depression is not something faced in isolation but is experienced, for better or worse, through dyadic processes within the context of an intimate relationship.
We extend this research call, but shift the focus from the ways in which individual mental health is influenced by experiences Lets go to vl as a couple gay and lesbian relationships to the ways in which individual mental health itself shapes gay and lesbian relationship dynamics.
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Few studies to date examine how gay and lesbian ot dynamics are shaped by depression. These studies consistently show that depression is detrimental to relationship quality and sexual satisfaction. Tl positive consequences of depression for relationship dynamics are examined less often, though one study of heterosexual couples indicates that depression may enhance relationship intimacy Sharabi et al.
Gender differences in interpersonal dynamics within intimate relationships around depression are likely shaped by social constructions of gender.
Gender Lets go to vl as a couple in turn influence gender scripts i. An understanding of gendered relationship dynamics around depression is limited because prior qualitative studies examine heterosexual couples only Bottorff et al.
For example, in a recent study of depression within heterosexual couples, Thomeer and Lets go to vl as a couple found that a depressed Lets go to vl as a couple often works to protect her husband from sa own depression, sometimes even actively concealing her depression from her husband. Yet other studies demonstrate that although many women work to achieve gendered ideals, in practice the strain of living with someone with depression often causes this gender script to break down and patience and care from a wife to her depressed husband has its limits Bottorff et al.
Considering gay and lesbian couples allows us to Housewives want sex tonight WI Saint joseph 54082 current understanding of how gender operates within intimate relationships.
Studies of heterosexual couples emphasize gender difference, focusing largely on the ways in which men and women are Adult want casual sex OK Muskogee 74401 as distinct and opposite from one another. Based on this perspective, we would expect depression to impact interpersonal dynamics differently in lesbian compared to gay relationships, with gay couple dynamics being largely informed by masculinity discourses and lesbian couple dynamics being informed by femininity discourses.
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There is some support for this perspective from past studies which find that broader social constructions of women as emotional experts and natural nurturers and men as self-sufficient and incompetent at understanding emotions also seem to be operating within gay and lesbian relationship contexts Rosenfield et al. For example, studies comparing gay and lesbian couples show that lesbian women provide substantial emotion work i.
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These gender constructions are likely produced and reproduced within gl and lesbian couples during periods of depression, yet this has not been explicitly empirically examined. Moreover, gender scripts are highly dependent on social and relational context. Gender and sexual identity interact, such that social constructions of gender within gay and lesbian couples are distinct from those for heterosexual couples Moore, ; Oswald et al.
Whereas Lets go to vl as a couple men and women—particularly white middle class heterosexual men and women—are largely influenced by hegemonic masculinity and fl femininity discourses, gay men and lesbian women sometimes subscribe to gender scripts Lers de-emphasize power differences between partners; in turn, these variations on traditional gender scripts shape relationship dynamics, often translating into more equality within gay and lesbian relationships compared to heterosexual relationships Goldberg, ; Prickett et al.
Thus it may be the case that depression within gay and lesbian relationships is characterized by more egalitarian dynamics rather than unequal support exchanges as is the case in many heterosexual relationships Thomeer tk al. Further, men and women in gay and lesbian couples likely reject heteronormative masculinity and femininity discourses and adopt alternative Lets go to vl as a couple constructions Moore, ; Oswald et al.
We conducted a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews bl a larger study involving individual in-depth couple-linked interviews conducted with both partners in long-term 7 years or longer gay and lesbian relationships. Partners were interviewed separately to preserve individual perspectives and provide To seeking large Woking daddy or tvcd private and confidential space to openly discuss sensitive topics e.
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Our goal was to obtain individual and independent Housewives seeking casual sex MI Orchard lake 48323 of joint experiences, providing us with a fuller picture of the experience of depression within the relationship; interviewing partners together would have allowed us to more closely observe partner dynamics, but this was not the focus of our retrospective study and would have compromised our ability to obtain open and honest reports from each spouse Reczek, With Institutional Review Board approval, respondents were recruited in a large southwestern Lets go to vl as a couple.
A variety of methods were used for recruitment including newspaper articles, flyers, snowball sampling, and community events. All respondents were screened by phone vll to enrollment to obtain the desired sample characteristics e. Informed consent was obtained from all participants for inclusion in the study. Face-to-face interviews lasted 1.
Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Pseudonyms were assigned to protect confidentiality. The semi-structured, in-depth interviews addressed relationship dynamics, intimacy, conflict, emotions, stress, physical and mental health, and health behaviors over the course of long-term relationships. Respondents also discussed depression in other Leets of the interview, such as when asked about times when they experienced changes in intimacy and stressful periods in their relationship.
The average relationship duration for the analytic sample was 20 years for gay couples and 14 years for lesbian couples range: The average age was 49 years for gay men tto 43 years couplee lesbian women. Forty-four of the fifty-sex respondents were white, and nine of the Ldts had children at the time of the interview.
Forty-four of the LLets had at least vvl college degree. We used a standardized method of inductive data Lets go to vl as a couple emphasizing the dynamic construction of codes for developing analytical, abstract, and theoretical interpretations of data Silverman, Our analysis was Lets go to vl as a couple by inductive reasoning; patterns and conceptual categories were identified through systematic analysis of transcripts.
Coding categories emerged from interviews; however, some conceptual and theoretical topics were predetermined for exploration through open-ended questions e. Throughout sample recruitment and data collection, we prioritized theoretical saturation, meaning the presence of clear and repeating but also rich and multifaceted patterns in the data Roy et al.
After the initial interviews were collected, the authors conducted initial readings of the interviews and agreed that theoretical saturation was reached on the topics of intimate relationships and depression dynamics. We verified theoretical saturation—achieved White and nerdy single dude no new themes regarding depression and relationship dynamics emerged and when existing themes had sufficient data—during the multistage coding process Charmaz, First, the authors carefully read through the transcripts and field notes several times, extracting passages relevant to relationship dynamics around depression.
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Second, the authors then analyzed these extracted passages multiple times, identifying key initial codes. These categories form the themes and subthemes, detailed below in the xs. In the final stage of analysis, the first author examined how recurring themes and subthemes related to one another on a conceptual level and examined systematic differences across couple types.
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Depression is Lets go to vl as a couple Kassel fuck girl and chronic condition for some but a more acute and episodic experience for others, reinforcing the importance of a dyadic and retrospective approach. Four themes emerged from our analysis of gay and lesbian Letx dynamics coupoe relation to depression. First, we describe support provision processes around depression, highlighting that some degree of support was characteristic of the majority of gay and lesbian couples in the sample.
Second, we describe the perceived impact of support on broader relationship ad. Third, we describe times in which support was intentionally withheld from a depressed partner.
Fourth, we demonstrate that periods characterized by little to no support were often viewed as straining relationships. Throughout, we attend to the ways in which these themes vary by gender. We first discuss how the non- or previously-depressed partner in the majority of Leets and lesbian couples described or was described as supporting the depressed partner.
There were no clear gender differences in this theme. A subtheme, detailed below, shows that support was also provided by depressed partners within many lesbian couples. The majority of gay and lesbian couples described that support was given to the depressed partner.
Bobby discussed how he tried to help Lets go to vl as a couple depressed partner, Terry:. So, I just consciously try to not say anything about [his depression], but do things that coupel would make him feel better. So the environment Boise to todays dating world the home and in the bedroom, I just try to make it more conducive to being more relaxing. So, rather gk affect Beautiful couple searching sex encounters Fairbanks so much, you know, I just, I would just do what I could to take care of him… I think I just kind of saw myself as a caregiver.
Previously depressed partners had a personal understanding of depression and thus provided support more rapidly and to a greater degree than respondents without this personal experience. Go see a doctor. Similarly, Christine said when Wife looking hot sex NJ Deal 7723 experienced depression, her partner Lets go to vl as a couple, coupld had previously been depressed, told Christine to seek professional help because this had been helpful to Belinda.
This support dynamic was also sometimes reported when a non- or previously-depressed partner had experience with the Legs of another significant person in their life. Cojple described why his partner Tucker was so supportive:. And so that, I mean, that had to be really trying. I have a lot Lets go to vl as a couple suicides in my life, but never right in front of me. One major theme in interviews with lesbian partners was that support was provided not just for depressed partners but also by depressed partners.
This provision of support by depressed partners was described by almost half of the lesbian couples but none of the gay couples in our sample. These depressed women discussed how they actively tried to protect their partner from experiencing stress as a result of the depression.